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Business-Managed Democracy

“Business-managed democracies are those in which the political and cultural arrangements are managed in the interests of business”

Sharon Beder

Business-Managed Education


A Business Leader's Guide to Setting Academic Standards pdf’,  The Business Roundtable, Washington D.C. June 2006.

Archer, Jeff, 2007, ‘U.S. Chamber Adds Business Viewpoint on School's Quality’, Education Week, vol 26, no 11.

Augustine, Norman R. 1997, ‘A New Business Agenda for Improving U.S. Schools’, Issues in Science and Technology, vol 13, no 3.

Bacon, David, 2002, ‘Testing Companies Go for the Gold’, Rethinking Schools Online, vol 16, no 3.

Baker, Mike, 2006, ‘Why Skills Are the New Education’, BBC News, 9 December.

Barkan, Joanne, 2011, 'Got Dough? How Billionaires Rule Our Schools', Dissent, Winter.

Baron, Dennis, 2002, ‘Will Anyone Accept the Good News on Literacy?’ The Chronicle of Higher Education, vol 48, no 21, 2002.

Berliner David C. and Biddle, Bruce J. 1995, The Manufactured Crisis: Myths, Fraud, and the Attack on America's Public Schools, Cambridge, Mass., Perseus Books.

Berman, Edward H. 1996, ‘The Politics of American Education and the Struggle for Cultural Dominance, 1996-’, Melboune Studies in Education, vol 37, no 1, pp. 21-46.

Brandon, Karen, 2002, ‘Test-Prep Pressure Hits Grade Schools’, in Alfie Kohn and Patrick Shannon (eds) Education, Inc. Turning Learning into a Business, revised ed. Portsmouth, NH, Heinemann, pp. 58-62.

Building Support for Tests That Count pdf’, Washington, DC, The Business Roundtable, November 1998.

Chute, Eleanor, 2006, ‘Back to School: Education Booms into a $850 Billion Enterprise’, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 30 August.

Clarke, Ben, 2004, ‘Exam Privatization Threatens Public Schools’, CorpWatch, 23 September.

Comber, B., Green, B., Lingard, B. and Luke, A. 1998, Literacy Debates and Public Education: A Question of 'Crisis'? In A Reid (ed.) Going Public: Education Policy and Public Education in Australia, Australian Curriculum Studies Association (ACSA), Canberra, pp. 18-34.

Continuing the Commitment: Essential Components of a Successful Education System pdf’, Washington, DC, The Business Roundtable, May 1995.

Dillon, Sam, 2011, 'Behind Grass-Roots School Advocacy, Bill Gates', New York Times, 21 May.

Dillon, Sam, 2004, ‘For Children Being Left Behind, Private Tutors Face Rocky Start’, New York Times, 16 April, p. 1.

Dunham, Richard S. 2007, ‘Business Gets Behind "No Child"’, Business Week, 7 May.

'Early Childhood Education: A Call to Action from the Business Community pdf', Business Roundtable and Corporate Voices for Working Families 7 May 2003.

Emery, Kath and Ohanian, Susan, 2004, Why Is Corporate America Bashing Our Public Schools?, Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH.

Hammonds, Keith H. 1999, ‘The Mission: David Kearns's Crusade to Fix America's Schools’, Business Week, 22 March.

Henig, Jeffrey R. 1994, Rethinking School Choice: Limits of the Market Metaphor, Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press.

Hess, Frederick M. 2006, ‘The Challenge of Giving: How New Donors Are Changing the Philanthropic Equation’, Education Week, 18 January.

Hoff, David J. 2006, ‘Big Business Goes to Bat for NCLB’, Education Week, 18 October.

Key Talking Points’, Business Coalition for Student Achievement, 2007.

Klonsky, Michael, 2010, 'Power Philanthropy: Taking the Public Out of Public Education', in The Gates Foundation and the Future of U.S. "Public" Schools, ed. Philip E. Kovacs, Routledge.

Kohn, Alfie, 2002, ‘Introduction: The 500-Pound Gorilla’, in Alfie Kohn and Patrick Shannon (eds) Education, Inc. Turning Learning into a Business, revised ed. Portsmouth, NH, Heinemann, pp. 1-11.

Kohn, Alfie, 2004, ‘NCLB and the Effort to Privatize Public Education’, in Deborah Meier and George Wood (eds) Many Children Left Behind: How the No Child Left Behind Act Is Damaging Our Children and Our Schools, Boston, Mass., Beacon Press, pp. 79-97.

Kohn, Alfie, 2002, ‘The 500-Pound Gorilla: The Corporate Role in the High-Stakes Testing Obsession & Other Methods of Turning Education into a Business’,, October, 2002.

Kronholz, June, 2003, ‘Education Companies See Dollars in Bush School-Boost Law’, Wall Street Journal, 24 December, p. B1.

Layton, Lyndsey, 2014, 'How Bill Gates pulled off the swift Common Core revolution', Washington Post, 7 June.

Lewin, Tamar, 2006, ‘As Math Scores Lag, a New Push for Basics’, New York Times, 14 November.

Metcalf, Stephen, 2002, ‘Reading between the Lines’, in Alfie Kohn and Patrick Shannon (eds) Education, Inc. Turning Learning into a Business, revised ed. Portsmouth, NH, Heinemann, pp. 49-57.

Miner, Barbara, 1999, ‘Testing: Full Speed Ahead’, Rethinking Schools Online, vol 14, no 2.

Miner, Barbara, 2004/5, ‘Keeping Public Schools Public: Testing Companies Mine for Gold’, Rethinking Schools Online, vol 19, no 2.

Molnar, Alex, 1996, Giving Kids the Bu$Iness: The Commercialization of America's Schools, Boulder, CO, Westview.

New Commission on the  Skills of the American Workforce, 2006, ‘Tough Choices or Tough Times’, National Center on Education and the Economy, December.

Olson, Lynn, 2006, ‘U.S. Urged to Reinvent It Schools’, Education Week, 20 December.

Perry, Nancy J. 1988, ‘The Education Crisis: What Business Can Do’, Fortune, 4 July.

Perry, Nancy J. 1989, ‘How to Help America's Schools’, Fortune, 4 December.

Perry, Nancy J. 1991, ‘Where We Go from Here’, Fortune, 21 October.

Poor Basic Skills 'Costing Firms'’, BBC News, 20 February, 2007.

Pryzbyla, Daniel, 2005, ‘Spellings: In God We Trust; All Others Bring Data’, Education News, 21 June.

Rivera, Carla, 2006, ‘Tutors Prepare Them – for Preschool and Kindergarten’, Los Angeles Times, 24 September.

Robertson, Heather-Jane, 1995, ‘Traders and Travellers: Public Education in a Corporate-Dominated Culture’, Ottawa, Canadian Teachers' Federation, May.

Rust, Edward B. 1999, ‘No Turning Back: A Progress Report on the Business Roundtable  Education Initiative pdf’, Washington, DC, Business Roundtable, August.

Rust, Edward B. 1999, 'Business Issues in Elementary and Secondary Education', Paper presented at the Committee on Education and the Workforce, US House of Representatives, 1 July.

Saltman, Kenneth, 2000, Collateral Damage: Corporatsing Public Schools – a Threat to Democracy, Lanham, Maryland, Rowman & Littlefield.

Shor, Ira, 1986, Culture Wars: School and Society in the Conservative Restoration 1969-1984, Boston, Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Sheils, Merill, 1975, ‘Why Johnny Can't Write’, Newsweek, 8 December.

Smyth, John, 1999, ‘ Schooling and Enterprise Culture: Pause for a Critical Policy Analysis’, Journal of Education Policy, vol 14, no 4.

Spring, Joel, 2002, Political Agendas for Education: From the Religious Right to the Green Party, Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum.

Transforming Education Policy: Assessing 10 Years of Progress in the States pdf’, Business Roundtable, June 1999.

Using The "No Child Left Behind Act" To Improve Schools in Your State: A Tool Kit for Business Leaders pdf’, Business Roundtable, March 2005.

Welch, Anthony, 1997, Class, Culture and the State in Australian Education: Reform or Crisis?, Frankfurt am Main, Peter Lang.

Whitty, G, S Power and D Halpin, 1998, Devolution and Choice in Education: The School, the State and the Market, Australian Council for Educational Research, Melbourne.

Zehr, Mary Ann, 2009, 'Conflict of Interest Arises as Concern in Standards Push', Education Week, vol 29, no 10, pp. 1, 13.

Contributers' Updates and Examples

If you have any examples or updates you would like to contribute please email them to me and I will add them here. Please give references for where you sourced the information.