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Business-Managed Democracy

“Business-managed democracies are those in which the political and cultural arrangements are managed in the interests of business”

Sharon Beder

Business-Managed Government


 'A Matter of Trust: How the Revolving Door Undermines Public Confidence in Government – and What to do about it', Revolving Door Working Group, October 2005.

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Abelson, Donald E. 1995, ‘From Policy Research to Political Advocacy: The Changing Role of Think Tanks in American Politics’, Canadian Review of American Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1.

Ashford, Nigel, 1997, ‘Politically Impossible? How Ideas Not Interests and Circumstances, Determine Public Policies’, Policy, Autumn, pp. 21-25.

Balanyá, Belén et al., 2000, Europe Inc. Regional and Global Restructuring and the Rise of Corporate Power, London, Pluto Press.

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‘Beating the Crisis: A Charter for Europe's Industrial Future’, Brussels, European Round Table of Industrialists, December 1993.

Beder, Sharon, 2002, Global Spin: The Corporate Assault on Environmentalism, 2nd edn, Devon, Green Books.

Bell, Stephen and Warhurst, John, 1992, ‘Political Activism among Large Firms’, in Stephen Bell and John Wanna (eds) Business-Government Relations in Australia, Sydney, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp. 57-65.

Berger, Mark T. 2004, The Battle for Asia: From Decolonization to Globalization, New York, RoutledgeCurzon.

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Blumenthal, Sidney, 1986, The Rise of the Counter-Establishment: From Conservative Ideology to Political Power, New York, Time Books.

Bollard, Allan, 1994, ‘New Zealand’, in John Williamson (ed) The Political Economy of Policy Reform, Washington, DC, Institute for International Economics, pp. 73-110.

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Carey, Alex, 1995, Taking the Risk out of Democracy, ed. Andrew Lohrey, Sydney, UNSW Press.

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Carlisle, Johan, 1993, 'Public Relationships: Hill and Knowlton, Robert Gray, and the CIA', CovertAction, vol, no 44, pp. 19-25.

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Cockett, Richard, 1994, Thinking the Unthinkable: Think-Tanks and the Economic Counter-Revolution 1931-1983, Harper Collin.

Craig, David with Richard Books, 2006, Plundering the Public Sector: How New Labour are letting consultants run off with £70 billion of our money, Constable, London.

Cran, William and Yergin, Daniel, 2002, ‘The Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy’, Public Broadcasting Service.

Da Silva, Wilson, 1996, ‘The New Social Focus’, Australian Financial Review Magazine, May, pp. 18-28.

Desai, R. 1994, ‘Second-Hand Dealers in Ideas: Think-Tanks and Thatcherite Hegemony’, New Left Review, vol 203, no Jan-Feb, pp. 27-64.

Doherty, Ann and Hoedeman, Olivier, 1994, ‘Knights of the Road’, New Statesman & Society, vol 7, no 327, pp. 27-9.

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Domhoff, G. William, 2009, Who Rules America? Challenges to Corporate and Class Dominance, 6th edn, New York, McGraw Hill.

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Duncan, Tim, 1986, ‘Mark of Cain in Attack on New Right Academics’, The Bulletin, 14 October, pp. 26-8.

Dusevic, Tom, 1990, ‘The Idea Factories’, Australian Financial Review, 25 May, pp 1, 3.

Eichbaum, Chris, 1992, ‘Market Liberalisation in New Zealand: Fightback! In Practice?’ in Peter Vintila, John Phillimore and Peter Newman (eds) Markets,  Morals & Manifestos: Fightback! & the Politics of Economic Rationalism in the 1990s, Murdoch, WA, Institute for Science and Technology Policy, Murdoch University, pp. 221-36.

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Fallows, James, 1996, Breaking the News: How the Media Undermine American Democracy (New York: Pantheon Books).

Gellner, Winand, 1995, ‘The Politics of Policy "Political Think Tanks" and Their Markets in the U.S.-Institutional Environment’, Presidential Studies Quarterly, vol 25, no 3, pp. 497-510.

Georges, Christopher, 1995, ‘Conservative Heritage Foundation Finds Recipe for Influence: Ideas Plus Marketing Equal Clout’’, Wall Street Journal, August 10, p. 10.

Greider, William, 1992, Who Will Tell the People: The Betrayal of American Democracy, New York, Simon & Schuster.

Haass, Richard N. 2002, ‘Think Tanks and U.S. Foreign Policy: A Policy-Maker's Perspective’, U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda, vol 7, no 3.

Hannan, Ewin and Shaun Carney, 2005, 'Thinkers of influence', The Age, 10 December.

Hari, Johann, 2010, 'The management consultancy scam', The Independent, 20 August.

Hardisty, Jean and Elizabeth Furdon, 2004, 'Policing Civil Society, NGO Watch', Public Eye 18(1), Spring.

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Hood, John, 1995, 'Send in the Tanks', National Review, 47(23), pp. 80-1.

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Jacobs, David, 1998, ‘Labor and Social Legislation in the United States: Business Obstructionism and Accommodation’, Labor Studies Journal, vol 23, no 2, pp. 52-73.

James, Simon, 1993, ‘The Idea Brokers: The Impact of Think Tanks on British Government’, Public Administration, vol 71, Winter, pp. 491-506.

Jay, Christopher, 1986, 'New Right Policy Moves out of the Politician's Hand', Australian Financial Review, 11 February, p. 16-7.

Jones, Digby, 2005, ‘Transcript: British High Commission’, Foreign & Commonwealth Home Office, 10 January.

Judis, John B. 2001, The Paradox of American Democracy: Elites, Special  Interests, and the Betrayal of Public Trust, New York, Pantheon.

Katz, Jeffrey L. 1992, 'The Conservative Idea Machine', Governing, February, pp. 51-5.

Kelly, Paul, 1992, The End of Uncertainty: The Story of the 1980s, St Leonards, NSW, Allen & Unwin.

Kelsey, Jane, 1999, Reclaiming the Future: New Zealand and the Global Economy, Wellington, Bridget Williams Books.

Kemp, David, 1988, ‘Liberalism and Conservatism in Australia since 1944’ in Intellectual Movements and Australian Society, ed Brian Head and James Walter, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, pp. 322-62.

Lewis, Paul, 1977, ‘Business Roundtable, in Policy Statement.’ New York Times, 10 February, p. 57.

Lindsay, Greg, 1996, ‘The CIS at Twenty: Greg Lindsay Talks to Andrew Norton’, Policy, Winter, pp. 16-21.

Lindsey, Jason Royce, 2013, The Concealment of the State, New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Lofgren, Mike, 2016, The Deep State: The Fall of the Constitution and the Rise of a Shadow Government, New York: Penguin Books.

Lofgren, Mike, 2014, 'The Anatomy of the State', Truthout, 26 February.

Matthews, Trevor, 1994, ‘Employers' Associations, Corporatism and the Accord: The Politics of Industrial Relations’, in S Bell and B Head, eds. State, Economy and Public Policy, Melbourne, Oxford University Press, pp. 194-224.

McEachern, Doug, 1991, Business Mates: The Power and Politics of the Hawke Era, Sydney, Prentice Hall.

McGuire, Patrick and Granovetter, Mark, 1998, ‘Business and Bias in Public Policy Formation: The National Civic Federation and Social Construction of Electric Utility Regulation, 1905-1907’, Public Power Now, August.

McRae, Simon, 2005, ‘Hidden Voices: The CBI, Corporate Lobbying and Sustainability’, London, Friends of the Earth, June.

Mellow, Craig, 1989, ‘Remaking PR’s Image’, Across the Board, Vol. 26, No. 7, 1989.

Montague, Peter, 1993, ‘PR firms for  hire to undermine democracy’, Rachel’s Hazardous Waste News, No. 361

Moore, Bette and Carpenter, Gary, 1987, ‘Main Players’, in Ken Coghill (ed) The New Right's Australian Fantasy, Fitzroy, Victoria, McPhee Gribble and Penguin Books, pp. 145-60.

Murray, Georgina and Pacheco, Douglas, 2001, ‘Think Tanks in the 1990s’, Australian National University.

Norington, Brad, 2003, 'Think tank secrets', Sydney Morning Herald, 12 August.

Noyes, Helen, 1995, 'Economic Rationalism', thesis for Bachelor of Economics (Social Science) Honours, University of Sydney.

'Of Policy and Pedigree', The Economist, 6 May, 1989, pp. 52-4

Oliver, Susan, 1993, ‘Where Do Governments Get Their Advice – Lobby Groups Think Tanks the Universities and the Media’, Canberra Bulletin of Public Administration, December, pp. 134-7.

O'Shea, James and Charles Madigan, 1999, Dangerous Company: The Consulting Powerhouses and the Businesses they Save and Ruin, Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London.

Parry, Robert, 1995, ‘The Rise of the Right-Wing Media Machine’, Extra! (March/April), pp. 6-10.

Parenti, Michael, 1995, Democracy for the Few, New York, St Martin's Press.

Pearse, Guy, 2007, High & Dry: John Howard, climate change and the selling of Australia's future, Viking, London.

Pusey, Michael, 1991, Economic Rationalism in Canberra, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Reich, Robert, 2008, Supercapitalism: The Transformation of Business, Democracy, and Everyday Life, Scribe, Melbourne.

Ricci, David, 1993, The Transformation of American Politics: The New Washington and the Rise of Think Tanks, New Haven, Yale University Press.

Ringe, Astrid and Rollings, Neil, 2000, ‘Responding to Relative Decline: The Creation of the National Economic Development Council’, Economic History Review, vol LIII, no 2, 2000, pp. 331-53.

Robelen,Erik W., 2010, 'Grantmakers Seeking to Influence Policy', Education Week, 8 December.

Rudolph, Richard and Ridley, Scott, 1986, Power Struggle: The Hundred -Year War over Electricity, New York, Harper & Row.

Rusbridger, Alan, 1987, ‘A Thought for Tomorrow’, The Guardian, 22 December.

Saloma, John S. 1984, Ominous Politics: The New Conservative Labyrinth (New York: Hill and Wang)

Sawer, Marian, 1982, 'Political Manifestations of Australian Libertarianism' in M Sawer (ed.) Australia and the New Right, George Allen & Unwin, North Sydney, pp. 1-19.

Schulman, Beth, 1995, ‘Foundations for a Movement: How the Right Wing Subsidizes its Press’, Extra! (March/April), pp. 11-12.

Scott, Peter Dale, 2015, The American Deep State: Wall Street, Big Oil, and the Attack on U.S. Democracy, London: Rowman & Littlefield.

Self, Peter, 1993, Government by the Market? The Politics of Public Choice, Hampshire and London, Macmillan, 1993.

Sheehan, Paul. 1985, ‘The Right Strikes Back’, Sydney Morning Herald, 2 March, pp. 37, 39.

Sheil, Christopher, 2000, Water's Fall: Running the Risks with Economic Rationalism, Annandale, NSW, Pluto Press.

Simms, Marion, 1982, A Liberal Nation: The Liberal Party & Australian Politics, Sydney: Hale & Iremonger.

Smith, James A. 1991, The Idea Brokers: Think Tanks and the Rise of the New Policy Elite, New York, Free Press.

Stauber, John and Rampton, Sheldon, 1995, Toxic Sludge Is Good for You! Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry, Monroe, Maine, Common Courage Press.

Stilwell, Frank, 1993, ‘Economic Rationalism: Sound Foundations for Policy?’ in Stuart Rees, Gordon Rodley and Frank Stilwell (eds) Beyond the Market: Alternatives to Economic Rationalism, Leichhardt, NSW, Pluto Press, 1993, pp. 27-37;

Stoesz, David, 1987, ‘Policy Gambit: Conservative Think Tanks Take on the Welfare State’, Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, vol 14, no 4, pp. 3-20.

Stone, Diane, 1991, ‘Old Guard Versus New Partisans: Think Tanks in Transition’, Australian Journal of Political Science, vol 26, no 2, pp. 197-215.

Talbott, Strobe, 2002, ‘The Brookings Institution: How a Think Tank Works’, U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda, vol 7, no 3.

Taft, Bernie, 1987, ‘The New Right in Practice’, in Ken Coghill (ed) The New Right's Australian Fantasy, Fitzroy, Victoria, McPhee Gribble and Penguin Books, pp. 27-37.

Taft, Kevin, 2017, 'How the oil industry created a ‘deep state’ in Canada', Maclean's, 6 October.

‘The Good Think-Tank Guide’, The Economist, vol 321, no 7738, 1992.

'The New Boys (2): Tanked Up', The Economist, vol 333, no 7893, 1994, pp. 26-7.

‘Think-Tanks: The Carousels of Power’, The Economist, 25 May 1991.

Trento, Susan B., 1992, The Power House: Robert Keith Gray and the Selling of Access and Influence in Washington, New York: St Martin's Press.

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Vogel, David, 1989, Fluctuating Fortunes: The Political Power of Business in America, New York, Basic Books.

Wanna, John, 1992, ‘Furthering Business Interests: Business Associations and Political Representation’, in Stephen Bell and John Wanna (eds) Business-Government Relations in Australia, Sydney, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp.66-79.

Weaver, R. Kent, 1989, ‘The Changing World of Think Tanks’, PS: Political Science and Politics, vol 22, Sept, pp. 563-78.

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Whitfield, Dexter, 1983, Making It Public: Evidence and Action against Privatisation, London, Pluto Press.

Whitwell, Greg, 1993, ‘Economic Ideas and Economic Policy: The Rise of Economic Rationalism in Australia’, Australian Economic History Review, vol 33, no 2, pp. 8-28.

Wilce, Rebekah, 2013,‘Exposed: The State Policy Network pdf’, Center for Media and Democracy, Madison, WI, November 2013.

Williams, Hywel, 2006, Britain's Power Elites: The Rebirth of a Ruling Class, Constable, London.

Yergin, Daniel and Stanislaw, Joseph, 1998, The Commanding Heights: The Battle between Government and the Marketplace That Is Remaking the World, New York, Simon and Schuster.

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