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Business-Managed Democracy

“Business-managed democracies are those in which the political and cultural arrangements are managed in the interests of business”

Sharon Beder

Business-Managed Government

Key Business Leaders

The key leadership role of a few corporate executives in mobilizing and organizing free trade coalitions confirms Useem’s theory about the ‘inner circle’ of corporate power. This table shows some key business leaders (past and present) in the trade arena.

People Corporations Free Trade Coalitions Other
Harry Freeman Vice President, American Express Executive Director, MTN Coalition
Founder and Chair, CSI
Media liaison, Alliance for GATT Now
Chair, Mark Twain Institute
Andrew Buxton CEO ‘92-99 and Chair ‘93-99, Barclays Bank
Director, Bank of England, CapitaLand UK Holdings Ltd, Xansa UK Ltd, United Bank of Kuwait PLC etc
Founder and Chair, ESF
Founder and Co-chair FLG
Founder and chair, High Level LOTIS Group
President, British Bankers Assn
Donald V. Fites Chairman and CEO, Caterpillar Inc ‘90-99
Director, Mobil, AK Steel, AT&T Wireless, Georgia-Pacific, Oshkosh Truck Corp. etc
Chair, Business Roundtable
Chair NFTC
Member, Business Council
Chair US-Japan Business Council
Director, NAM
President’s Advisory Committee on Trade Policy and Negotiations
1998-CWT award
William C. Lane Director, Government Affairs, Caterpillar Inc. Chair, USA*Engage
Co-chair, US Trade
Co-chair, U.S.-Chile Free Trade Coalition
Founder, Zero Tariff Coalition
Founder Illinois NAFTA Coalition
VP Alliance for GATT Now
Co-Chair, American-Australian Free Trade Agreement Coalition, AAFTAC
Member, US Industry Advisory Committee for Trade Policy
Jerry R. Junkins Chair (1988-96) and CEO (1985-1996), Texas Instruments
Director of Caterpillar Inc., Proctor & Gamble Company and 3M
Chair, Alliance for GATT Now
Chair, Business Roundtable’s International Trade and Investment Task Force
International Leadership Award from USCIB
Member, Business Council
President’s Advisory Committee on Trade Policy and Negotiations
Dean O’Hare CEO and Chair, Chubb Corporation ‘88-2002
Director of Fluor Corporation and H.J. Heinz Company
Chair, CSI
Chair, USCIB
Co-chair, FLG
President’s Advisory Committee on Trade Policy and Negotiations
Past chair, American Insurance Association
Chair, Services Working Committee, Pacific Basin Economic Council
Edmond T. Pratt Jnr CEO and Chair, Pfizer
Director of General Motors, International Paper, Chase Manhattan, etc
Chair, Business Roundtable
Co-founder, Intellectual Property Committee (IPC)
Member, Business Council
Chair, Advisory Committee on Trade Policy and Negotiations
Assistant secretary of the Army for Kennedy administration
Frank Kittredge Vice President of General Electric’s Asia-Pacific Division
Director, Crane and Company, Inc,
President, NFTC
Vice chair, USA*Engage
Committee Member, U.S. State Department Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy
Advisory Board Member, Trade Law Study Group
Board Director, Singapore Trade Development Board, The National U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce
Chairman, US-ASEAN Center for Technology Exchange
Philip M. Condit Chair ‘97-present and CEO ‘96-present, Boeing Director, Hewlett-Packard Company Board of Trustees, USCIB
Co-Chair, TABD
Chair, Business Roundtable and Chair, Business Roundtable’s International Trade and Investment Task Force
Chair, US-China Business Council
Member, Council on Foreign Relations, World Economic Forum, President’s Export Advisory Council, Council on Competitiveness, US-Japan Business Council, Board of Hewlett-Packard
Anne Wexler Chair of Executive Committee, Wexler & Walker Clients include NFTC, USA*Engage, USA*NAFTA, Alliance for GATT Now Top policy aide to President Carter
Deputy Under Secretary of Commerce
Member, Council on Foreign Relations

Source: Sharon Beder, Suiting Themselves: How Corporations Drive the Global Agenda, Earthscan, London, 2006, pp. 208-9.