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Business-Managed Democracy

“Business-managed democracies are those in which the political and cultural arrangements are managed in the interests of business”

Sharon Beder

Business-Managed Education


‘A Brief History of Vouchers’, Washington DC, People for the American Way Foundation, 21 August 2003.

Ads Promote School Choice’, Wires, 3 January, 2001.

Allum, Jenny, 2003, ‘Market Skews the Quality of Learning’, Sydney Morning Herald, 12 March.

Anrig, Greg, 2008, 'An Idea Whose Time Has Gone', Washington Monthly, April.

Australian Senate, 1997, ‘Not a Level Playing Field: Private and Commercial Funding in Government Schools’, Canberra, Senate Employment, Workplace Relations, Small Business and Education Committee, June.

Baker, Mike, 2007, ‘The Problem with School 'Choice'’, BBC News, 3 March.

Barrington, John, 1991, ‘Educational Reform in New Zealand’, in Mark B. Ginsburg (ed) Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context, New York, Garland Publishing.

Berliner, David C. and Bruce J. Biddle, 1995, The Manufactured Crisis: Myths, Fraud, and the Attack on America's Public Schools, Cambridge, Mass., Perseus Books.

Brouillette, Véronique, 2006, ‘The Centrale Des Syndicats Du Québec and the Struggle against Neo-Liberal Schooling’, Our Schools, Our Selves, vol 15, no 3, pp. 113-126.

Carnoy, Martin, 2001, ‘Do School Vouchers Improve Student Performance?The American Prospect, 1-15 January, pp. 42-45.

Carnoy, Martin, 1998, ‘National Voucher Plans in Chile and Sweden: Did Privatization Reforms Make for Better Education?’ Comparative Education Review, vol 42, no 3, pp. 309-337.

Connell, Bob, 1998, ‘A Moment of Danger’, Education Links, Spring, pp. 9-12.

Connell, Raewyn, 2006, ‘The New Right Triumphant: The Privatization Agenda and Public Education in Australia’, Our Schools, Our Selves, vol 15, no 3, pp. 143-199.

Engel, Michael, 2000, The Struggle for Control of Public Education: Market Ideology Vs Democratic Values, Philadelphia, Temple University Press.

Fierman, Jaclyn, 1989, ‘Giving Parents a Choice of Schools’, Fortune, 4 December, pp. 147-9.

Fiske, Edward B. and Helen F. Ladd, 2000, ‘A Distant Laboratory’, Education Week, 17 May.

Gewirtz, Sharon, Ball, Stephen J., & Bowe, Richard, 1995, Markets, Choice and Equity in Education, Buckingham, Open University Press.

Harrison, Mark, 1998, ‘What If Supermarkets Were Run Like Schools?’ School Choices.

Hegarty, Stephen, 2000, ‘Voucher Program Front and Center’, St Petersburg Times, 21 May, p. 1A.

Henig, Jeffrey R. 1994, Rethinking School Choice: Limits of the Market Metaphor, Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press.

Hill, David, 2000, ‘Global Neo-Liberalism and the Perversion of Education', in Reclaim Our Education Conference, University of East London, p. 5.

Hirtt, Nico, 2004, ‘The Three Axes of School Merchandization’, European Educational Research Journal, vol 3, no 2, pp. 442-53.

History of Failed Vouchers and Tax Credits, People for the American Way Foundation, Washington DC, 2002.

Howe, Kenneth, Eisenhart, Margaret, & Betebenner, Damian, 2002, ‘School Choice Crucible: A Case Study of Boulder Valley’, in Alfie Kohn and Patrick Shannon (eds) Education, Inc. Turning Learning into a Business, revised ed. Portsmouth, NH, Heinemann, pp. 146-65.

Kenway, Jane and Lindsay Fitzclarence, 1998, ‘Consuming Children? Public Education as a Market Commodity’, in Alan Reid (ed) Going Public: Education Policy and Public Education in Australia, Deakin West, ACT, Australian Curriculum Studies Association and Centre for the Study of Public Education, University of South Australia, pp. 47-56.

Kohn, Alfie, 2004, ‘NCLB and the Effort to Privatize Public Education’, in Deborah Meier and George Wood (eds) Many Children Left Behind: How the No Child Left Behind Act Is Damaging Our Children and Our Schools, Boston, Mass., Beacon Press, pp. 79-97.

Kuehn, Larry, 2006, ‘The New Right Agenda and Teacher Resistance in Canadian Education’, Our Schools, Our Selves, vol 15, no 3, pp. 127-141.

Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie and Charleen Brantley, 2008, ‘Who Chooses Schools, and Why?’ Education Policy Research Unit, Arizona State University and Education and Public Interest Center, Univerity of Colorado, January.

Lips, Dan and Evan Feinberg, 2007, ‘School Choice: A Progress Report’, USA Today, January.

Marginson, Simon, 1997, Markets in Education, Sydney, Allen & Unwin.

Marginson, Simon, 1998, ‘Putting the 'Public' Back into Public Education’, in Alan Reid (ed) Going Public: Education Policy and Public Education in Australia, Canberra, Australian Curriculum Studies Association (ACSA), pp. 69-76.

Melville, Kirsti, 1998, ‘Schools of the Third Millennium’, Background Briefing, ABC Radio National, 19 July.

Miner, Barbara, 2006, ‘A Brief History of Milwaukee's Voucher Program’, Rethinking Schools Online, vol 20, no 3.

Miner, Barbara, 2005, ‘Keeping Public Schools Public: Free-Market Education’, Rethinking Schools Online, vol 20, no 1.

Miner, Barbara, 2004, ‘Seed Money for Conservatives’, Rethinking Schools Online, vol 18, no 4.

Morgan, Clara, 2006, ‘A Retrospective Look at Educational Reforms in Ontario’, Our Schools, Our Selves, vol 15, no 2, pp. 127-41.

Morrow, Ann, Blackburn, Jean, & Gill, Judith, 1998, ‘Public Education: From Public Domain to Private Enterprise?’ in Alan Reid (ed) Going Public: Education Policy and Public Education in Australia, Canberra, Australian Curriculum Studies Association (ACSA), pp. 9-17.

Neas, Ralph G. 2003, ‘Following the Money: Funding and Support for Voucher Programs’, Washington DC, People for the American Way Foundation.

Owens, Erik C. 2002, ‘Taking the 'Public' out of Our Schools: The Political, Constitutional and Civic Implications of Private School Vouchers’, Journal of Church & State, vol 44, no 4.

Patty, Anna, 2006, ‘Schooling Choice Leaves Poorest to Struggle: Study’, Sydney Morning Herald, 8-9 July, p. 5.

‘Privatization of Public Education: A Joint Venture of Charity and Power’, Washington DC, People for the American Way Foundation, 20 April 1999.

Saltman, Kenneth, 2000, Collateral Damage: Corporatsing Public Schools – a Threat to Democracy, Lanham, Maryland, Rowman & Littlefield.

School Vouchers: The Research Track Record’, Wahsington, DC, American Federation of Teachers,  2005.

Spring, Joel, 2002, Political Agendas for Education: From the Religious Right to the Green Party, Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum.

The Voucher Veneer: The Deeper Agenda to Privatize Public Education’, Washington DC, People for the American Way Foundation, July 2003.

Twohey, Megan, 2002, ‘Who Vouches for the Vouchers?’ American Prospect, vol 13, no 12, p. 14.

Unaccountable by Design: Corporate Tuition Tax Credit Schemes Drain Millions from States’, Washington DC, People for the American Way Foundation, September 2003.

Vouchers: Who's Behind It All?’ American Association of School Administrators, 21 October 2005.

Welch, Anthony, 1997, Class, Culture and the State in Australian Education: Reform or Crisis?, Frankfurt am Main, Peter Lang.

Whitty, Geoff, 2002, Making Sense of Education Policy: Studies in the Sociology and Politics of Education, London, Sage.

Wilgoren, Jodi, 2000, ‘Schools Are Now Marketers Where Choice Is Taking Hold’, New York Times, 20 April.

Wylie, Cathy, 1998, ‘Can Vouchers Deliver Better Education? A Review of the Literature: With Special Reference to New Zealand’, Wellington, New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

Wylie, Cathy, 1999, ‘Ten Years On: How Schools View Educational Reform’, Wellington, New Zealand Council for Educational Research,  1999, p. xix.

Contributers' Updates and Examples

If you have any examples or updates you would like to contribute please email them to me and I will add them here. Please give references for where you sourced the information.