Human Skin Cancer
Sunscreen and Fabric
The Mouse Model of Cancer
Studies Using Skin Tissue
Drugs and Sunlight
Plant and Algae Growth

abscess • collection of pus formed in a cavity of the body
albino • having no colouring pigment in the hair and skin
antibody • substance in the blood that attacks possibly harmful substances in the blood
aquaculture •water-based farming eg growing oysters
Basal Cell Carcinoma • shiny skin-coloured tumour which grows very slowly over a period of years, particularly on the face. It is most common in people over the age of 50 years and is rarely lethal.
benign • not harmful
benthic algae • algae that are attached to rocks on the sea shore
biological • referring to the life processes of plants and animals
biochemical • referring to chemical life processes of plants and animals
carcinogen • something that causes cancer
carcinoma • cancer
CFCs • chlorofluorocarbons - chemicals that cause depletion of the ozone layer and are used as refrigerants, spray can propellants, foam blowing agents.
chlorophyll • a green plant pigment which absorbs energy from sunlight
chromotograph • equipment for separating chemicals in a mixture
collaborative • working together, cooperating
control • experimental object that is kept constant for comparison purposes
corollary • consequence, result, extension
culture medium • a preparation used for growing organisms in the laboratory
cumulative • increasing, adding up, accumulating
dermatology • study of the skin
dermis • layer of skin under the epidermis
DNA • genetic coding
epidermis • outer layer of the skin
epithelial cells • cells in the outer part of the skin
erythema • pinkening of the skin caused by dilation of the blood capilliaries
erythemal dose • dose of sunburn
excises • cuts out
extrapolate • to extend the results into an unknown area, for example to extend the findings about mice and apply them to humans
facet • aspect
FPF • see Fabric Protection Factor
Fabric Protection Factor • a number indicating the degree of protection against UV exposure a fabric provides (chapter 2)
familial melanoma • melanoma that runs in families, eg where two members of the same family have melanoma (chapter 1)
fibroblasts • connective tissue cells that make up most of the dermis
fluoresce • give off different light wavelengths to those it receives
formulator • someone who mixes the ingredients of a product
geometric properties • properties to do with shape, structure and space.
genetic • inherited from parents, about the genes
geneticist • someone who studies genes
hormones • internal secretions that pass into the blood and stimulate organs to action
hypothesis • starting theory, something assumed for the purpose of argument, but not proved
immune system • body’s defense system for fighting disease
immunisation • giving immunity
immunity • ability to resist disease
induce • to bring on
infrared light • radiation with wavelengths between visible light and radio waves
in vitro • in laboratory dishes
in vivo • in a living person or animal
keratinocytes • cells in the outer part of the skin
Langerhans cells • cells which are normally present in the skin and are important in starting local immune response
longitudinal study • a study over time
malignant • harmful
mandatory • enforced by law
melanin • chemical that causes tanning
melanocyte • cell in the outer layer of the skin that produced the dark brown pigment required for a tan
melanoma • form of skin cancer that can be fatal (chapter 1)
membrane • sheet-like connective tissue or lining
meticulously • very carefully
minimal erythemal dose • the amount of UV light required to turn the skin slightly pink.
mutagenicity • causing genetic changes
mutant • genetically altered, for example mutant hairless mice are those which are hairless because of their genetic makeup.
mutation • genetic change
neonatal • newly born
ozone • a molecule made up of three oxygen atoms. Ozone is formed in the upper atmosphere and helps to filter out harmful radiation from the sun. (Ozone is also formed much closer to the earth from vehicle emissions and is a form of pollution.)
parasite • an organisms that lives off another organism or animal
pathogens • disease causing organisms
pathology • study of disease
photobiology • the study of how light and living things interact
photon • a portion of elelctromagnetic radiation
photosynthesis • the process by which green plants manufacture their carbohydrates from atmospheric carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight.
phytoplankton • large family of plants that drift in the sea and are generally microscopic
pigment • skin colouring
prostaglandins • regulating chemicals produced in the body
psychological • to do with the mind
radiation • emissions of rays from a source such as the sun
registrar • administator in a hospital
odents • mice and rats
solar simulator • an artificial light source that has similar characteristics to sunlight
spectrophotometer • a machine that measures light transmission
spectral • of the spectrum, see spectrum, wavelength
spectral cutoff • filtering out certain parts of the spectrum
spectrum • range of wavelengths of light/radiation, see wavelength
SPF • see Sunscreen Protection Factor
Squamous Cell Carcinoma • scaling red tumour which grows over a period of months. Most common in people over 60 years and about 2% are fatal.
stratosphere • the part of the earth's atmosphere between 10 and 50 km above the earth's surface
Sunscreen Protection Factor • a number indicating the degree of protection against UV exposure a sunscreen gives (chapter 2)
suppression • preventing expression or action of something
surgical academic • a university teacher and researcher who also performs medical operations
susceptible • vulnerable, sensitive
systemic immune suppression • suppression of the whole immune system throughout the body
template • thin metal plate used as a guide
terrestrial • land based
therapeutic • healing, helping to cure
traumatic • very stressful
tumour • growth of a lump
ultra violet light/ ultra violet radiation • part of the sunlight spectrum which humans are exposed to when they go outside and which causes sunburn and skin cancer
UV light/radiation • see ultra violet light
UVA • part of the spectrum of UV light nearest visible light
UVB • part of the spectrum of UV light which causes sunburn
wavelength • speed of light or radiation divided by its frequency. Electomagnetic radiation is usually divided up according to wavelengths.