Human Skin Cancer
Sunscreen and Fabric
The Mouse Model of Cancer
Studies Using Skin Tissue
Drugs and Sunlight
Plant and Algae Growth


The articles listed below have been selected from ECOS. This journal specialises in environmental issues. It is especially useful for the non-scientist as the language of the articles, as well as the explanations of scientific problems, are easy to understand.

Bell A. Chlorine Blamed for Growing Ozone Hole. ECOS; Winter 1988; 56: 3-6.
Bell A. Mystery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole. ECOS; Winter 1987; 52: 7-9.
Bell A. Ozone Hole: A New Twist. ECOS; Autumn 1989; 59: 29.

The following references are a selection from the New Scientist magazine during the height of the most recent ozone controversy involving CFCs, halons and the ozone holes.

Emstey J. The Solution is the Problem. New Scientist; 13 Feb 1986: 3337.
Farman J. What Hope tor the Ozone Layer Now? New Scientist; 12 Nov 1987: 50-54.
Gribbin J. An Atmosphere in Convulsions. New Scientist; 26 Nov 1987: 30-31.
Gribbin J. The Ozone Layer. New Scientist (Inside Science No. 9); 5 May 1987: 1-2.
Hughs, J; Beggs, C. The Dark Side of Sunlight. New Scientist; 21 Aug 1986: 31-35.
Jones M. In Search of Safe CFCs. New Scientist; 26 May 1988: 56-60.
Joyce C. Chlorine Clears the Ozone Layer Down South. New Scientist; 8 Oct 1987: 18-19.
Joyce C; Mackenzie D. Hot Air Threatens Ozone in Montreal. New Scientist; 17 Sept 1987: 30-31.
MacKenzie D. Coming Soon: the Next Ozone Hole. New Scientist; 1 Sept 1988: 38-42.
MacKenzie D. Industry Develops Ozone Friendly Processes. New Scientist; 19 Nov 1988: 30-31.
Miller, J. Chinese Bring a Chill to Backers of Ozone Protocol. New Scientist; 11 Feb 1989: 28.
Pearce, F. Ozone Threat Spreads to the Arctic. New Scientist; 24 Mar 1988: 22-23.
Pearce, F; Anderson, I. Is There a Hole Over the North Pole? New Scientist; 25 Feb 1989: 32-33.
Wood, C. Life Without a Sunscreen. New Scientist; 10 Dec 1988: 46-49.

Annotated Bibliography

AEC. Australian Environment Council Strategy For Ozone Protection. Australia: Commonwealth of Australia; 1989.

The document concentrates on end-use control of CFCs and Halons (ie. reduction of emissions or consumption). On the more pressing issue of production controls the AEC is restricted by its limited powers - it can only make recommendations to the government on what it considers to be appropriate legislative and regulative actions. The paper addresses the important issues of disposal, labelling and imports and exports of CFCs and Halons, unfortunately, once again it can only make recommendations, this time for more research into these issues. The various manufacturing applications of the ozone depleting chemicals are set out clearly and concisely and provide a useful record for the interested reader.

Australian Conservation Foundation. Ozone Information Kit. Sydney: ACF; c. 1989.

This kit consists of a collection of articles from Habitat, Conservation News and the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research. The collection deals with the following issues: causes of ozone depletion, impacts of ozone depletion, and remedies for ozone depletion. The kit can be obtained from the ACF for $2.50. It is a very useful beginners guide.

Cogan DG. Stones in a Glass House: CFCs and Ozone Depletion. Washington D.C.: Investor Responsibility Research Centre; 1988.

Well illustrated with diagrams and graphs. Well written, easy to read. Makes an attempt at remaining neutral. Cogan, in the introduction, gives an overview of the main aspects of the ozone controversy. Each area is then re-examined by chapter in more detail. The contentious chemicals, their history and uses are analysed in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 outlines the earlier debates, while Chapter 3 examines scientific and policy development since the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. The remaining three chapters describe ways in which outlooks towards the threat of ozone depletion began to change - or were forced to change. This final section includes an appraisal of regulatory processes as well as directions and considerations for the future of environmental outlooks.

Dotto L; Schiff H. The Ozone War. NY: Doubleclay & Co Inc; 1978.

Easy and exciting reading. American. This book is the classic on the early (1970s) ozone debate. The authors cover this contentious issue in detail, introducing the reader to the roles played by the scientists, politicians, industrialists and the media. From congress hearings to reports in Rolling Stone magazine; the political dimension of science is laid bare.

Fraser, P J (ed). Environmental, Health and Economic Implications of the Use of Chlorofluorocarbons as Aerosol Propellants and Possible Substitutes. Canberra: AEC/NHMRC; 1988.

This document is essentially a broad review of the environmental, health and economic implications of the use of CFCs in aerosol sprays. It includes an overview of possible substitutes. The recommendations support the Vienna Convention and propose that further joint government working groups be set up to review developments. The paper restricts its commentary to CFCs and to aerosol applications of this chemical and is therefore only of limited value.

Gribbin, John. The Hole in the Sky: Man’s [sic] Threat to the Ozone Layer. London: Corgi Books; 1987.

The author is English which may help to even out the American bias in this debate. Gribbin’s book covers the 1970s debate before turning to the modern controversy over CFC use/ ozone depletion. This is a book written for the general reader and is essentially the story of the scientific dispute about ozone rather than simply a dry analysis. The author places the chapters with care so that the reader understands the essentials of ozone chemistry before embarking too deeply into the political dimensions of the issue.

Roan SL. Ozone Crisis: The 15-Year Evolution of a Sudden Global Emergency. NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1989 .

Contains a very useful “timeline” of the debate. Enjoyable and easy reading. American. Journalistic in style. In this book Roan plots out the global environmental issue of ozone in some detail - from the scientists, to congress and international conferences. She deals with this debate chronologically - emphasising political aspects at every “stage”. The book introduces the reader to the scientists and their struggle for recognition, as well as to the various roles played by industrialists, politicians, the media and the general public. The strength of this book lies in the author’s ability to point out the political dimensions of the debate - from the politicians attempts to mitigate- the seriousness of the problem, to industrialists concerned with the protection of the $1 Billion dollar CFC industry. Ultimately, this powerful group influenced the debate heavily, encouraging the view that CFCs had to be proven guilty before any legislative action could take place.
UNEP/GEMS Environment Library. The Ozone Layer. Nairobi: UNEP; 1987.

This concise document outlines the legislative, scientific and chemical aspects of the concern over ozone. It is a useful tool within this limited field. The document does not deal with the debate as such and makes a strong attempt at sounding neutral. It provides an useful summary of the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol.