Sewers seaward
Toothless watchdog
Toxic fish
Sewer-side surfing
Public relations battle
Events of 1989
Beyond Sydney

A fuller set of references may be found in:

Beder, S. (1989), From Pipe Dreams to Tunnel Vision: Engineering Decision-Making and Sydney's Sewerage System, PhD thesis, University of New South Wales.


Aird, W.V. (1961), The Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage of Sydney, M.W.S. & D.B., Sydney.

Bland, F.A. (1928), ‘City Government by Commission', Royal Australian Historical Society 14. Part III, pp. 117-99.

Burton, J. Hill (l850), ‘Sanitary Reform', Edinburgh Review 91, January, pp. 210-28.

Chadwick, Edwin (1842), The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain, edited with an introduction by M.W. Flinn, Edinburgh Press, 1965.

Henry, F.J.J. (1939), The Water Supply and Sewerage of Sydney, Halstead Press, Sydney.

Larcombe, F.A. (1973), The Origin of Local Government in New South Wales 1831-1858, Vol. 1, Sydney University Press.

Mayne, A.J.C. (1982), Fever, Squalor and Vice; Sanitation and Social Policy in Victorian Sydney, University of Queensland Press.

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Sidwick, John (1976), ‘A Brief History of Sewage Treatment', Effluent and Water Treatment Journal, various editions in 1976.

Sydney City and Suburban Sewage and Health Board, (1875) Twelve reports.

Thorpe, N.J. (1956), ‘Centenary of Sydney's Sewerage', Sydney Water Board Journal 6(2), July, pp. 45-52.

Wells, Lana (1982), Sunny Memories: Australians at the Seaside, Greenhouse Publications.

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Burke, Ulick Ralph (1873), A Handbook on Sewage Utilization, 2nd ed, E. & F.N. Spon, London.

Clark, W. (1877), Report to the Government of New South Wales, on the Drainage of the City of Sydney and Suburbs.

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_______(1938), Elimination of Nuisance From Ocean Outfall Discharges.

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________(1916), Proposed System of Sewerage, With Ocean Outfall, for the Northern Suburbs of Sydney.

Robinson, Henry (1896), Sewerage and Sewage Disposal, E. & F.N. Spon, London.

Stayton, George (1887), Sewerage and Drainage of the Western Suburbs, Department of Public Works.

_______(1891), Sewage Purification, NSW Legislative Assembly.

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Bates. G.M. (1983), Environmental Law In Australia, Butterworths.

Butlin, N.G. (ed) (1976), Sydney's Environmental Amenity 1970-1975: A Study of the System of Waste Management and Pollution Control, Botany Bay Project Report No.1, Australian National University Press, Canberra.

Commonwealth Government (1981), ‘Environment Protection (Sea Dumping) Act l981', no. 10l of 1981.

Fisher, D.E. (1980), Environmental Law in Australia: An Introduction, University of Queensland Press.

Fowler, Robert J. (l982), Environment Impact Assessment, Planning and Pollution Measures in Australia, Australian Govt Publlshing Service, Canberra.

Haigh, David John (1981), ‘Pollution in New South Wales – Air, Water, Noise and Waste' in Local Government, Planning and Environmental Service, Volume C-commentary, Butteworths, chapter 15.

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_______Clean Waters Regulations 1972 under the Clean Waters Act 1970.

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SPCC, Design Criteria for Ocean Discharge, Environmental Design Guide, WP-1

_____ (1980), An Atlas of Classified Waters in New South Wales, SPCC, January.

Zeppetello, Marc (1985), ‘National and International Regulation of Ocean Dumping: The Mandate to Terminate Marine Disposal of Contaminated Sewage Sludge', Ecology Law Quarterly 12(3), pp. 619-664.

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Bascom, Willard (1982), ‘The Effects of Waste Disposal on the Coastal Waters of Southern California', Environmental Science Technology, 16(4), pp. 226-36.

Butlin N.G. (ed) (1977), Factory Waste Potential in Sydney, Botany Bay Project Report No. 2, Australian National University Press, Canberra.

Caldwell Connell, (1973) Reconnaissance Survey of Heavy Metal and Pesticide Levels in Marine Organisms in the Sydney Area, October.

Connell, Des W. (1988), ‘Bioaccumulation Behavior of Persistent Organic Chemicals with Aquatic Organisms', Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 102, pp. 117-154.

Environmental Protection Agency, US (1979), ‘Modification of Secondary Treatment Requirements for Discharges into Marine Waters', Federal Register 44(11), June 15.

FRI, (undated) Organochlorine Pesticide and Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Residues in Fish and other Aquatic Organisms in New South Wales, Part II, Dept. of Agriculture.

Gosden, Richard (1986), ‘Sydney’s Toxic Waste Dump – the Pacific', Chain Reaction, 46, Winter, pp. 18-20.

Joy, C., Hickson, W. & Buchanan, M. (1978), Liquid Waste Management, Botany Bay Working Paper No. 2, Botany Bay Project, Canberra.

Killmier, A.N. (1972), ‘Charging for Trade Waste Disposal', Thirteenth Conference of Administrative Officers of Water Supply and Sewerage Authorities of Australia.

Pierce, E..W.T. and Ralph, C.S. (l972), ‘Principles and Practices Relating to the Acceptance of Trade Wastes into the Sydney Water Board's Systems', in Royal Australian Chemical Institute, Process Chemistry Group, Industrial Waste Water: A Symposium of Recent Developments, UNSW.

SPCC (1979), Toxic Chemicals, Environmental Control Study of Botany Bay, September.

______ (1989), Bioaccumulation in Nearshore Marine Organisms, I & II, March.

US Office of Technology Assessment (1987), Wastes in Marine Environments, National Technical Information Service.

Water Board (1988), Sydney Deepwater Outfalls Environmental Monitoring Programme, Pilot Study, March.

_____(1988), Trade Waste Policy and Management Plan 1988, November.

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Achuthan, N.R. et al. (1985), ‘Development of a Beach Pollution Index for Sydney Coastal Beaches', Water 12(3), September, pp. 14-1 8.

Anon (1986), ‘Tracking Sewage – Where do the Grease Balls go?', Nuclear News 24.

Austin, F.J. (1985), ‘Pollution of the Coastal Environment by Human Enteric Viruses' in 1985 Australasian Conference on Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Preprints of Papers-vol. l , IEAust, IPENZ, NWSCO, pp. 229-34.

Berg, Gerald et al. (ed) (1976), Viruses in Water, American Public Health Association.

Bernard, A.G. (1988), ‘The Bacteriological Quality of Sydney's Tidal Bathing Waters', in Proceedings of Water Quality & Management for Recreation & Tourism, International Conference, IAWPRC & IAWWA, July, pp. 46-50.

Gameson, A.L.H. (ed) (1975), Discharge of Sewage From Sea Outfalls, Pergamon, Oxford.

Goyal, Sagar et al. (l984), ‘Human Pathogenic Viruses at Sewage Sludge Disposal Sites in the Middle Atlantic Region', Applied and Environmental Microbiology 48(4), Oct, pp. 758-63.

Lewis, C.D. (1985), ‘Fate of Human Enteroviruses in Sewage Discharged into New Zealand Coastal Waters' in 1985 Australasian Conference on Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Preprints of Papers - vol. 1, IEAust, IPENZ, NWSCO, pp. 221-28.

Loutit, Margaret (1985), ‘The Fate of Certain Bacteria and Heavy Metals in Sewage Discharged Through an Ocean Outfall', 1985 Australasian Conference on Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Preprints of Papers-vol. 1 , IEAust, IPENZ, NWSCO, pp. 21 1-20.

Moore, B. (1959), ‘The Risk of Infection Through, Bathing in Sewage- Polluted Water’, in E A. Pearson (ed), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Waste Disposal in the Marine Environment, Pergamon Press, pp. 29-37.

_____(1959), ‘Sewage Contamination of Coastal Bathing Waters in England and Wales', Journal of Hygiene 57, pp. 435-72.

SPCC (1979), Health Aspects of Faecal Contamination, Environmental Control Study of Botany Bay, January.

US Office of Technology Assessment (l987), Wastes in Marine Environments, National Technical Information Service.

Willcox, Kirk (1987), ‘Australia a Turd World Country', Tracks, May, pp. 68-9, 79.

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Brain, R. (1981), ‘Recent Developments in Ocean Outfall Diffuser Theory', Conference on Environmental Engineering, IEAust, Townsville.

_____(1982), ‘Sludge Disposal and Design Criteria for Ocean Outfall Discharge', Symposium on Sludge Management and Disposal, Surfer's Paradise.

Caldwell Connell (1976), Sydney Submarine Outfall Studies, M.W.S. & D.B.

______ (1979), Environmental Impact Statement, North Head Water Pollution Control Plant, M.W.S. & D.B.

______(1979), Environmental Impact Statement, Malabar Water Pollution Control Plant, M.W.S. & D.B.

______(1980), Analysis of Oceanographic Data and Review of Ocean Outfall Design Concepts, M.W.S. & D.B., July.

Davison, A. et al. (1921), ‘Radioisotope Studies on the Paradox in Dispersion and Agglomeration of Sewage Greases Discharged from Ocean Outfalls', Proceedings of the Ninth Federal Convention of the Australian Waste-Water Association, Perth, pp. (23-8)-(23-13)

Mullins, T. (1981), ‘Submarine Sewerage Outfall', Communique 2, August l981.

M.W.S. & D.B. (1977), North Head and Ocean Outfall Re-evaluation of Treatment and Disposal Options, Sept.

_____(l979), Environmental Impact Statement. Bondi Water Pollution Control Plant, M.W.S. & D.B.

Wallis, I.G. (l983), 'Ocean Currents Offshore from Sydney', Sixth Australian Conference on Coastal to Ocean Engineering, IEAust, pp. 206-10.

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Albury, Randall (l983). The Politics of Objectivity. Deakin University Press. p. 44.

Barnes, Barry (l985) About Science, Basil Blackwell.

Boyle, Godfrey, David Elliot & Robin Roy (eds) (1977), The Politics of Technology, Longman/Open University Press.

Mazur, Allan (1973), ‘Disputes Between Experts', Minerva XI(2), April, pp. 243-61.

______(1975), ‘Opposition to Technological lnnovation', Minerva XII(1), Spring 1975, pp. 58-81.

Nelkin, Dorothy (l975), ‘The political impact of technical expertise', Social Studies of Science 5, pp. 35-54.

_____(l987), Selling Science: How the Press Covers Science and Technology, W.H. Freeman & Co, New York.

Primack, Joel & von Hippel, Frank (l974), Advice and Dissent: Scientists in the Political Arena, Basic. Books, New York.

Rip, Arie (1985), ‘Experts in Public Arenas', in Harry Otway & Malcolm Peltu (eds), Regulating Industrial Risks: Science, Hazards and Public Protection, Butterworths, pp. 94- 110.

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Binnie & Partners ( 1987), Northern Areas Wastewater Scheme Environmental Impact Statement, Coffs Harbour Shire Council.

Commissioners of Inquiry (l988). The Coffs Harbour City Council Northern Areas Wastewater Scheme.

Smith, N.A. & Speir J. (1985) ‘Ocean Discharge of Sewage is a Treatment Option', 1985 Australasian Conference on Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Christchurch, pp. 29-38.

White, S. (1988) Byron Bay Decentralised Sewerage Strategy, Friends of the Earth, Sydney.