for Vehicle Choice, which is
funded by car manufacturers including Ford, GM and Chrysler, also ran
advertisements in the lead up to Kyoto.
Advancement of Sound Science Coalition (TASSC)
held a sweepstakes to encourage grassroots lobbying against a treaty.
TASSC was funded by corporations such as 3M, Amoco, Chevron, Dow Chemical,
Exxon, Philip Morris, Procter and Gamble and General Motors. The Information
Council on the Environment, which was a coal industry front group, incorporating
the National Coal Association, Western Fuels, and Edison Electrical
Institute amongst others, was formed in 1991 to "reposition global warming
as theory (not fact)." (Ozone Action 1997)
Climate Coalition, a coalition
US trade associations and private companies
representing oil, gas, coal, automobile and chemical companies and trade
associations, put together with the help of PR giant Burson-Marsteller,
has spent millions of dollars in its campaign to persuade the public
and governments that global warming is not a real threat.
page it describes itself as
"A voice for business in the global warming debate" with membership
representing "a broad spectrum of virtually all elements of U.S. industry
including the energy producing and energy consuming sectors."
In the negotiating sessions leading
up to the Kyoto Conference, industry representatives made up most of
the observers, under a provision that enables organisations 'qualified
in matters covered by the Convention' to attend. They did not represent
their firms at these meetings but represented corporate front groups
such as the Global Climate Coalition and the International Petroleum
Industry Environmental Conservation Association. (Collier 1997)
In 1998 the Global Climate Coalition
publicised a study that estimated the costs of energy for the average
household would increase by up to $1,740 annually and that petrol would
increase by up to 66c per gallon. GCC also published estimates of job
losses for each state. It then released a study immediately prior to
the Buenos Aires meeting purporting to show that 6 out of 10 Americans
thought the treaty would be expensive for American households and should
not be implemented.
Some of these corporate front groups
have come and gone as they have been exposed, only to be replaced by
others. The Greening
Earth Society was established
in April 1998 by Western Fuels Association to convince people that "using
fossil fuels to enable our economic activity is as natural as breathing".
advisors include Robert
Balling and Patrick
Another recent addition to the campaign
has been the Center
for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change,
which according to CLEAR, the Washington-based Clearinghouse on Environmental
Advocacy and Research, seems to have a strong working relationship with
Fuels Association and Greening
Earth Society. (CLEAR 1998)
The front group Consumer
Alert formed the Cooler
Heads Coalition in 1997
"to dispel the myths of global warming by exposing flawed economic,
scientific, and risk analysis." It is headed by Marlo Lewis, vice
president for policy at the Competitive
1999, 'An Interview with
the Global Cllimate Coaliton', The Ecologist, 29(2), pp.
Anon., 1994, 'Coalition urges
resistance to greenhouse gas demands', Chemical Marketing Reporter,
Vol. 246, No. 8.
'A CLEAR Special Report: Western Fuels
Association's Astroturf Empire', CLEAR, November 1998.
Hammond, Keith, 1997, Astroturf
Jones, 4 December.
Backlash Industry in Kyoto,
A CLEAR View, Volume 4, Number 16, 3 December 1997.
Hot Air: TASSC Takes on Global Warming,
PR Watch 4(3) 1997
Action information on Global Climate Coalition.
Action information on Global Climate Coaltion
Action information on Global Climate Information Project
to Preserve American Security and Sovereignty
Heads Coalition material on global warming
Brown, Lester R.
Rise and Fall of the Global Climate Coalition, Worldwatch
Institute Issue Alert.